Ida B. Wells - part three

Ida B. Wells - part two

Ida B Wells - mini documentary

Ida B. Wells Barnett

Ida B. Wells Barnett  1862-1931

Ida B. Wells Barnett was a co-founder of the NAACP, an anti-lynch crusader and a most courageous Black woman journalist.  She was born of slave parents in Holly Springs, Mississippi in 1862.  At age fourteen, she was orphaned by a yellow fever epidemic.  Despite this adversity, she managed to attend Rust College and Fisk University.  From 1884 to 1891, she taught segregated public school in Memphis, Tennessee, and began writing articles for the Free Speech, a Black newspaper.  In 1891, the Memphis Board of Education fired her because her articles were too firey and controversial.  Afterwards, she acquired a partnership in the Free Speech, became its editor and traveled throughout the southern states.

Miss Wells was strong-willed and spirited.  Once when asked to leave the "White Section" of a train, she flatly refused and had to be forceably removed by three conductors.  She sued and won $500 in damages, but the decision was later reversed.  She became an outspoken antagonist against the senseless murders (i.e. lynchings) of Blacks.  When a friend, Thomas Moss, and two other Black businessmen were lynched for defending their property, she wrote an editorial identifying the murderers and demanded that they be brought to justice.  Later, writing under a pen name "Iola," she published a shocking, detailed expose on the activities of the lynch mobs.  The same night the expose appeared in the Free Speech, her printing office was vandalizing and all the equipment and copies of the Free Speech were destroyed.  She went to New York where she joined the staff of the New York Age, edited by Thomas Fortune, and began a fervent crusade against lynching.  She made several trips to Europe to publicize the facts about lynching.  Her speeches were well-covered by English newspapers, which drew villainous attacks from White newspapers in the United States.

In 1895, Miss Wells published "A Red Record," a serious statistical treatment of tragic lynchings in the United States, which could not be refuted.  She discredited the myth that Black men were lynched because they raped white women.  The fact was, she stated, "they were murdered," as were her friends, because Whites felt that Blacks were "too uppity and too successful."  In her appeal to President William McKinley for support, she stated, "nowhere in the civilized world, save in the United States, do men go out in bands of fifty to five thousand, to hunt down, shoot, hang or burn to death, a single individual, unarmed and absolutely powerless."

In 1895, Miss Wells married Ferdinard Barnett, an attorney and a Chicago newspaper owner, and later bore four children.  Together, they used their newspaper to expose injustice perpetrated against Blacks.  Mrs. Barnett became frustrated that violence against Blacks was growing and that nothing was being done. Once, when investigating a lynching in Cairo, Illinois, she found the Black townspeople too afraid to protest. Alone, she went to the State House in Springfield to argue against the reinstatement of the sheriff who had permitted the murder.  For more than a day, she pleaded her case against the best lawyers in southern Illinois and won.  That was the last lynching in the state of Illinois.

Mrs. Ida B. Wells Barnett was perhaps the most famous Black female journalist of her time.  She was a correspondent for the Memphis Watchman, Detroit Plain Dealer, Indianapolis World, and the Little Rock Sun, to name a few.  Mr. T. Thomas Fortune, a noted Black editor of the time, said, "She has become famous as one of the few of our women who handle a goose quill, with diamond point, as easily as any man in the newspaper work."  Mrs. Barnett was cited as one of the 25 outstanding women in Chicago's history, and one of its housing projects bears her name.  She died in 1931.

Excerpt from A Salute to Historic Black Women.

This is only a summary of the life of Ida B. Wells Barnett.

Self Awareness Vehicle Who Are You

Ida B. Wells - part one